Duan Qigong Master
In traditional Chinese culture, (qi) it is frequently translated as “energy flow,” and is often compared to Western notions of energeia or élan vital (vitalism) as well as the yogic notion of prana. The literal translation is “air,” “breath,” or “gas” (compare the original meaning of Latin spiritus “breathing”; or the Common Greek πνεῦμα, meaning “air,” “breath,” or “spirit”; and the Sanskrit term prana, “breath” ).
Not only human beings and animals were believed to have “qi”. Zhuang Zhou (also known as Zhuang Zi or Master Zhuang) indicated that wind is the “qi” of the earth. Moreover, cosmic Yin and Yang “are the greatest of ‘qi’.” He describes qi as “issuing forth” and creating profound effects.
Zhuang Zi gave us one of the most productive of insights into the nature of “qi”. He said “Human beings are born [because of] the accumulation of ‘qi’. When it accumulates there is life. When it dissipates there is death…. There is one ‘qi’ that connects and pervades everything in the world.”
Another passage traces life to intercourse between Heaven and Earth: “The highest Yin is the most restrained. The highest Yang is the most exuberant. The restrained comes forth from Heaven. The exuberant issues forth from Earth. The two intertwine and penetrate forming a harmony, and [as a result] things are born.”
Zhuang Zi was a contemporary of Mencius. Xun Zi followed them after some years. At 9:69/127, Xun Zi says: “Fire and water have qi but do not have life. Grasses and trees have life but do not have perceptivity. Fowl and beasts have perceptivity but do not have yi (sense of right and wrong, duty, justice). Men have qi, life, perceptivity, and yi.” This passage gives us some insight into his idea of “qi”. Chinese people at such an early time had no concept of radiant energy. But they were aware that one can be heated by a campfire even though the air between camper and fire is quite cold. Clearly, something is emitted by the fire and reaches the camper. They called it “qi”. At 18:62/122, he too uses “qi” to refer to the vital forces of the body that decline with advanced age.