Pinoleville Pomo Sovereign Marijuana Farm Raided; Mendocino’s 150 Year Genocide of Pomo Peoples Continues

•September 24, 2015 • Leave a Comment

Pinoleville Pomo Sovereign Marijuana Farm Raided; & Why Mendocino Should LEAVE THE POMO ALONE

Genocide Mendocino

After numerous Attempts to Cooperate with the County and Sheriff’s Requests, the County and Sheriff Department Turn Their Backs on the Pomo People, Continuing a 150+ Year Tradition of Genocide and Oppression Against the Pomo Peoples by Mendocino County Government.

Pinoleville Pomo Raided

The Mendocino County Sheriff’s Office raided a medical marijuana growing operation on Indian land just north of Ukiah on Tuesday, disrupting a high-profile project that had garnered national attention and was hailed by tribal leaders as a new way to generate jobs and revenue for cash-strapped tribes.

Deputies eradicated some 400 pot plants from an outdoor location. At another location, they began dismantling a “highly sophisticated” chemical laboratory where honey oil — a sticky, concentrated pot product used to make edible medicine— was being manufactured under the auspices of the Pinoleville Pomo Nation, said Sheriff’s Capt. Greg Van Patten. More than 100 pounds of trimmed and drying marijuana also was found inside the laboratory building, a former car dealership on North State Street.

Tribal representatives who helped launch what is widely believed to be the first large-scale, tribal-operated medical pot operation in the state had contended they had a right to grow marijuana on the tribe’s 99-acre rancheria for the benefit of the estimated 250-member tribe.

They decried Tuesday’s raids, which were accompanied by court-issued warrants, on what they claim are legal operations.

“I think what they’re doing is not right,” said Nori Baldridge, the tribe’s director of economic development. “This is sovereign land and this is a sovereign nation,” she said.

 “We were shocked,” said Mike Canales, president of the tribe’s business board. He said he’s been in frequent contact with Sheriff Tom Allman and expected to be notified before there was any kind of raid. He also contends the sheriff does not have authority over the tribe and said he will be asking the county grand jury to investigate the issue.

Neither he nor Baldridge is a member of the tribe, but the two have been instrumental in creating the marijuana operation. Tribal Chairwoman Leona Williams could not immediately be reached for comment.

Sweatlodge Pomo Underground

For those of you not familiar with what sovereign means, in lay-mans terms it means the tribes have the federally protected right to decide, vote, and enforce their own set of tribal laws on their own tribal lands. These are lands which lay “outside” the reach of local jurisdictions, for instance the Mendocino County Sheriff’s Department. Essentially the Reservations and the tribal lands are recognized as “Sovereign Nations” with the right to decide their own destiny and the right to choose their own tribal laws. The Poinoleville Tribe has decided to partner up with the Very Successful Coilorado Based United Cannabis as well as Fox Barry Farms, two very powerful groups of financiers who are backed with millions of dollars as well as lobbyists and very smart, tactful and wise attorneys and lawyers. In other words, this is serious business which could bring the tribe a great deal of money: Except there is a catch!


Mendocino County Sheriff Department Failure to Respect Sovereign Tribal Law:

Mendocino County Sheriff Tom Allman (the main authority and decision maker on marijuana in Mendocino County) has said the legality of such a large-scale proposal was questionable, even though the tribe is considered a sovereign nation.It seems the Mendocino County Sheriff who has a history with local tribal members and tribal government which goes back to the “Bear Lincoln Man Hunt Days” does not respect or honor for the sovereign rights of the Pinoleville Pomo Nation. On Wednesday Allman issued a written statement, disclosing that he had met with a tribal representative earlier in the day.

“Due to conflicting interpretations of state and local marijuana laws/ordinances relating to Tribal lands, no agreement was reached as to the legal operation of the marijuana cultivation,” the release states.

“It is the intent of the Mendocino County Sheriff’s Office to fairly and equally enforce the law throughout Mendocino County. If a violation of state or local law is observed in Mendocino County, the appropriate law enforcement action will be taken,” he wrote, adding that he has the authority to enforce criminal laws on Indian lands.

pomo bark roundhouse

Could it be hot embers from “Old Feuds” Which are Keeping Sheriff Allman from Respecting Pomo Nation Sovereign Rights on the Pomo National Lands?

Buds and Humming Bird

What reason would the Sheriff have to keep these investors which have already invested Millions of Dollars into Tribal Casino’s and Tribal Gas Stations in our area from investing in the Good Will of the Pinoleville Tribe to produce Medicine for dying and sick patients, we believe it is nothing more than old embers which are still hot which the Sheriff Department still holds onto which is keeping the Sheriff from doing what is right!

Mendocino Counties Genocide Against the Pomo Indians:

No Mention of Mendocino County government and it’s current relationship with the Aboriginal Native Peoples of this area would be complete with out a mention of the “Mendocino Genocide” which occurred by the County of Mendocino and the State of California against these very same tribes the Sheriff Department is fighting and still oppressing today:

Mendocino’s Genocide: Hidden History of Willits, Little Lake Valley

pomo ceremonial necklace

~According to the Press Democrat _-

Mendocino County sheriff’s deputies raid tribe’s pot operation near Ukiah

Why Can’t the Mendocino County Sheriff Department be Trusted by the Community?

THE “OFFICIAL PRESS RELEASE” From the Mendocino County Sheriff’s Office:

Several months ago the Mendocino County Sheriff’s Office began receiving information about a marijuana cultivation operation being established by the Pinoleville Pomo Nation Tribe in Ukiah, California.

Since that time personnel from the Mendocino County Sheriff’s Office had numerous contacts with representatives from the tribe concerning why the operation was being established.

During those contacts it was determined the operation was utilizing open land located at 650 Pinoleville Road and a building at 2150 North State Street both being locations in Ukiah, California.

Several aerial over-flights of 650 Pinoleville Road were conducted within the last two months showing approximately 400 growing marijuana plants at that location.

On 09-18-2015 Mendocino County Sheriff’s Office Deputies were called to 2150 North State Street due to the activation of a burglary alarm.

Upon arrival Deputies contacted several individuals who were transporting cut marijuana plants from 650 Pinoleville Road to the building.  These individuals identified themselves as being employed by the Pinoleville Pomo Nation Tribe.

On 09-22-2015 the County of Mendocino Marijuana Eradication Team obtained search warrants for 650 Pinoleville Road and 2150 North State Street.

Each search warrant was subsequently served and 382 growing marijuana plants were eradicated from 650 Pinoleville Road.  Investigators noticed several marijuana plants had already been harvested from the location.

During the search of the building at 2150 North State Street a sophisticated honey oil chemical extraction laboratory was discovered in addition to over 100 pounds of trimmed/processed marijuana.

No individuals were present at both locations when the search warrants were served and investigations are on-going at this time.

In 1953 Public Law 280 mandated a substantial transfer of jurisdiction from the federal government to the state level in California as to situations occurring on Indian Country.

As a result, The Mendocino County Sheriff’s Office is mandated to assume jurisdiction on Indian Country located in the unincorporated areas of Mendocino County and to enforce California state laws including those listed in the crime/incident section of this press release.

TRUE Mendocino County History

The TRUTH Shall Prevail In The End!


Pomo Indians as

Pomo Indians as “Herded Up” onto Mendocino County Reservation in the 1850’s. Notice there are only women and children, ;local male indians were called “bucks” by maurading bands of genocidists and were sytematically killed. Starting In the 1850’s POMO as well as many other local tribes which were exterminated by the genocide were subjected to a war of extermination and genocide throughout Mendocino County Theses cold hearted acts of Genocide against Elderly, Men Women and even babies became known as the “Mendocino Wars” and were documented by Congressional Inquiry.

Prior to the “Manifest Destiny” in which whites thought it was their “God Given Right” to conquer and destroy the “Pagan ways and Peoples of the New World” as well as steal their land in the name of “God”, Mendocino County had one of the largest populations of Native American peoples in the State. These tribes spent the winters in the inland Valley’s such as Ukiah, Willits and Laytonville, and camped on the coast during the spring and summer where they collected seafood and grasses as well as cultivated grains by means of burning valley fields and plating pinole( a mix of native seeds and grains) which were collected the year before using large baskets which had the seeds “beat into the basket”

Pomo Seed Gatherer

. The “Mendocino War”,  just a small part of the “Mendocino Genocide”, was a violent act of Mendocino County and California State Sponsored genocide perpetuated from July 1859 to January 18, 1860, against the local native people including the Cahto, Coastal Yuki, Wailaki, Yuki, Huchnom (now extinct) as well as other local Mendocino County tribes which also were eliminated by these very same acts of  genocide. The Genocide in Mendocino County Ca was committed  by groups of white men from Willits and Ukiah mounted on horses and carrying firearms. The Eel River Rangers as they were called, were  paid and sponsored by the State of California and under the directions of local “pioneers”. This genocide, aimed against a  peaceful local community of Hunter, Gatherer Native Americans which had inhabited Mendocino County Ca for thousands of years was caused by settler intrusion onto native lands in the name of “Manifest Destiny”. These intrusions resulted in the deaths of thousands of local natives including the elderly, men women and even babies. In 1859, a band of locally sponsored “RANGERS” , (yes this is where the term ranger comes from), led by Walter S. Jarboe, organized by Judge Serranus C Hastings called the Eel River Rangers raided the countryside in an effort to kill and forcibly remove natives from their Native Homes where they had lived for thousands of years and move them onto the Mendocino Reservation where today’s Fort Bragg stands as well as Nome Cult Farm, near Covelo, now called Round Valley Reservation. The settlers of Mendocino County wanted the Aboriginal Native Mendocino Lands and had absolutely no problem with committing acts of murder, genocide including the wholesale slaughter of entire Mendocino Indian villages in order to steal the land.

By the time the Eel River Rangers were disbanded in 1860, by his own estimates,  Jarboe and his men had killed 283 warriors, captured 292, and had admitted to killing countless women and children in Mendocino County. The Rangers themselves only suffered 5 casualties in the 23 engagements, showing the extent of the slaughter. Many people of the time as well as many historians today claim the number of Native Mendocino County Indians exterminated by the Eel River Rangers to be much higher, reaching into the many thousands. The Villages of the Indians were usually attacked at dawn while the Indians were sleeping and most villagers including all the men would be slaughtered, many elderly, women and children would be slaughtered as well, the women and children who survived were forcibly kidnapped and “driven” by whip to the nearest reservations. where they faced more brutality, including sexual assaults, kidnapping as well as starvation at what has became known as California’s first Concentration Camps, today’s “reservations”.

Even when forced onto the reservation in Covelo, local Native Peoples were forced into slavery and faced starvation. Women and Children were constantly raped and sexually assaulted by pioneer men of Mendocino County who would “raid” the reservation.. Children were also kidnapped from Round Valley reservation,, tied onto horses and “packed” or “driven” to the Sacramento Valley where they were sold as sexual concubines to wealthy white ranchers or sold into slavery on one of the many farms in the Sacramento Valley.

Kidnapping indians mendocino

California Paid for the Mendocino County Genocide;

The bill to the state for the rangers’ services amounted to $11,143.43. Scholars, however, claim that the damage to the area and natives in particular was even higher than reported, especially given the vast number of raiding parties formed outside of the Eel River Rangers. Frustrated with the inadequacy of federal protection, settlers formed their own raiding parties against the natives, joining Jarboe in his mission to rid Round Valley of its native population. Those that survived were moved to the Nome Cult Farm, where they experienced hardships typical of the reservation system of the day. After the conflict, contemporaries claimed that the conflict was more of a slaughter than a war, and later historians have labeled it a genocide.

Pomo Village House

Pomo Linguistic Map

Henry Raschen Interior Of A Pomo Dwelling 1883

Henry Raschen Interior Of A Pomo Dwelling 1883

Pomo house. Donated by: Zella Bleyhl

Pomo Indians Today

Pomo Indians Today

California’s First Tribally Sponsored “Medical Marijuana Medicinal Farm” has began preparing for planting on their Sovereign Tribal Lands North of Ukiah on the Pinoleville Pomo Nation’s rancheria, along Highway 101. Where once only Mono-crops of chemical and pesticide grown grapes were grown there is now a new organic crop in the neighborhood, Medical Marijuana!

Dec. 11, 2014 Report from US News and World Report Revealing tribes can legally grow and sell medical marijuana.

Dec. 11, 2014 Report from US News and World Report Revealing tribes can legally grow and sell medical marijuana.

Mendocino Counties Genocide Against the Pomo Indians:

No Mention of Mendocino County government and it’s current relationship with the Aboriginal Native Peoples of this area would be complete with out a mention of the “Mendocino Genocide” which occurred by the County of Mendocino and the State of California against these very same tribes the Sheriff Department is fighting and still oppressing today:

Mendocino’s Genocide: Hidden History of Willits, Little Lake Valley


The Willits – Little Lake Valley was called Mitomkai meaning big valley, mato = big + kai valley, by the Mitomkai Pomo Indian Tribelets which lived and claimed the Little Lake Valley as their home for thousands of years. The heavily populated Valley supported a population of over 4,000 in ancient times, the Mitomkai Pomo indians lived on the high ground around the Valley. The largest of the Villages, called “mato” or “Big” was situated at the site of present day Willits, on the top of the Hill between Coast Street and Mill Street, there is still the large oak tree which is judged to be around 300 years old standing on this hill today. The Mitomkai Pomo practiced a hunter gatherer life dominated by collection of prairie seeds from the Valley which the Indians cultivated by burning the fields and Meadows in spring and spreading the seeds which were gathered in the fall the year before.

Pomo Woman Gathering Pinole Seeds with Baskets.

The seeds were gathered as they ripened using a long cylindrical basket and a “beating basket” which was used to thresh the seeds into the larger basket. Acorns were gathered in the Fall and stored in winter granaries which kept the acorns fresh and out of the reach of pests.

Acorn Granary

Salmon were harvested in the fall around November and December as Chinook King Salmon and Coho Salmon as well as trout and Steelhead made their annual migrations. The Mitomkai Pomo Territory Extended to the Coast where the Mitomkai Pomo claimed a Village at Big River in Mendocino called Buldam. The Ancient Indian trail to the Coast followed the modern day Willits – Fortbragg Road except the Indian Trails were on the ridgetops. At the Mouth of Big River, at a Village called Buldam by the Mitomkai Pomo Indians, the Indians collected seaweeds, Mussels and Abalone as well as fished the many different Species of Freshwater Fish including Salmon and Steelhead from Big River. Fish, mollusks including mussels and abalone as well as seaweed were dried on the ridge tops above the fog bank on the coast where they kept their villages safe from passing boats canoes and kayaks. The Indians used all sorts of Canoes up and down the California Coast from the Chumash in Santa Barbara to the Yurok of Humboldt County. The Ocean was used as a highway for trade. Many trading spots were found along the Mendocino Coast, from Big River to Mussel Rock. Many tribes from all over the California Coast would gather at Mussel Rock North of Ten Mile River. There on the large hill overlooking Mussel Rock and the Pacific Ocean was a Village called Lilem where high on the overlooking hill was a Subterranean Sweat house Capable of holding 200 people or more for religious ceremony. The many shellmounds as well as midden piles along the Mendocino Coast are testament to the ancient land claims to ancient fishing grounds.

Indian Sweathouse, Big River Mendocino County Ca

Little Lake, Mitomkai Valley hosted large herds of deer and elk as well as large populations of Grizzly Bear and Mountain Lions before the coming of foreign settlers. Many of the Mitomkai Pomo people were rounded up on the Coast as they made their yearly trips to the coast sometime around the year 1855. In 1855 an exploration party from the Bureau of Indian Affairs visited the area looking for a site on which to establish a reservation and, in the spring of 1856, the Mendocino Indian Reservation was established at Noyo.[1] In the summer of 1857, First Lieutenant Horatio G. Gibson, then serving at the Presidio of San Francisco, was ordered to take Company M, 3rd Regiment of Artillery to establish a military post one and one-half miles north of the Noyo River on the Mendocino Indian Reservation. The official date of the establishment of Fort Bragg was June 11, 1857. Its purpose was to maintain order on the reservation, and protect the Indians and reservation lands from settlers. Many Mitomakai Pomo People would never return from their yearly fishing trip to the coast. Instead they were “rounded up” like cattle by cowboys on horses and marched to Fort Bragg, then the headquarters of the Mendocino Indian Reservation. At the reservation the indians faced starvation, disease as well as the kidknapping and rape of their women and children. Other groups which ran away from the Reservation were hunted down by groups and Militias of State Sanctioned and State Paid “Volunteers” such as William Jarboes “Eel River Rangers”.

Mendocino Indian Reservation

As more settlers encroached on Little Lake Valley and Mendocino County, indian hunting grounds were ruined by the hooves of Settlers Cattle which ate the Indians grasses and clovers. Settlers killed the Elk and Deer which had been so carefully manged for millennia. Starving Displaced indians soon turned to killing livestock and cattle to survive. White Settlers retaliated by raiding indian villages during the early morning hours and killing every man woman and child to be found. Soon, every loss of animal was blamed on the indians despite the fact the County hosted a very large population of Mountain Lions and Grizzly Bears who have been found to be the main culprits behind the missing game. In the meantime the Mitomkai Pomo indians were blamed, the Mitomkai were rounded up or killed. Many Children were sold to Ranchers in the Sacramento Valley where they fetched up to a $100 for a girl.

Kidnapping indians mendocino

Genocide of the Mitomkai and Mendocino Indian Tribes “The Mendocino War” Round Valley, located in northeastern Mendocino County in Northern California, was home to various Native American tribes. The most populous of these local tribes were the Yuki, whose territory was roughly 1,100 square miles.[1] The Yuki were not one political people; rather, they were several autonomous groups that shared both language and culture, with each community having its own leadership.[2] In 1853, California started its Indian Reservation System, which was headed by Thomas J. Henley (Superintendent of Indian Affairs), and by 1854 Round Valley was discovered by white settlers.[3] Frank Asbill, the first white man to see the territory, estimated that there were about 20,000 natives in the area at the time. Scholars now believe this number is a little high, but by 1856, there were 12,000 Native Americans in Round Valley.[4] Although a few families moved into native territory, many of the settlers were hunters, fugitives, drifters, and the like. In general, they were people who lived off of the land, who traveled to the area for its resources.[3] In the same year, Thomas Henley sent Simmon Pena Storms to start the Nome Cult Farm.[3] Originally meant to be a resting point for natives and people traveling to the Mendocino Reservation, the Nome Cult Farm grew to become a reservation of its own, occupying 5,000 acres of northern Round Valley. This division of the 20,000 acre territory left over 15,000 acres for white settlement.[3] Members of the Yuki tribe on the Nome Cult Farm (c.1858) Seeds of conflict

Despite the amount of land set aside for white settlement, the government had trouble stopping newcomers from settling all over the valley, including on the Nome Cult Farm and Mendocino Reservation.[5] As settlers moved into what was designated native territory, it became hard for the natives to survive. Those that lived on the Nome Cult Farm lived a life of hardship. In a type of indentured servitude, the natives raised their crops but reaped little of the actual benefits.[6] Natives were not protected but were subject to brutal treatment that included assaults, rape, murder, theft of their property, disease, and starvation.[7] Many white settlers who encroached on native territory engaged in kidnapping, stealing Native women and children and subjugating them to servitude or sexual abuse.[8] Natives at the Nome Cult Farm were overworked, and could even be killed if their work was not up to the standards of the reservation.[9] White settlers continued to exploit native land, with many families fencing in thousands of acres each.[10] They removed fences from the Nome Cult Farm and allowed their herds to graze on and through native land, some of which was already filled with crops.[11] The California Reservation System, which was subject to corruption, fraud and misuse of federal funds, provided little recourse.[12] As more settlers encroached on native land and resources, native food sources dried up on and around the reservations. Escalation

Since ranching methods at the time were not very advanced (barbed wire had not been invented), the settlers had trouble keeping their livestock on their land. Many tried to train their animals to stay in a certain area, but this was not always effective. Livestock often wandered, and the local terrain made matters worse. The territory was new, unfamiliar, and full of hazardous cliffs and predators, and many cattle and horses wandered off and died of natural causes.[13] However, the settlers blamed the natives for any animal that went missing, believing that they were the targets of “Indian Depredations”, holding public meetings to stir up animosity towards the natives.[11] In retaliation, they continued their assaults on native land and resources. With no police force at hand, the reservation was powerless to stop local theft of native property or abductions of native people.[7] Locals like Dryden Lacock even stated that settlers, including himself, were engaging in small raiding parties that killed “50-60 Indians a trip”.[6] Finally, on the brink of starvation and left with almost no options, the natives began to retaliate. In 1857 a Yuki shot a man named William Mantle while trying to cross the Eel River, and in 1858 a white man named John McDaniel was murdered.[6] Both had been famous for crimes committed against Native Americans, and reports from the U.S. Army claim that the natives were provoked in both instances.[14] State and federal involvement Seal of the natives of Round Valley

As tensions rose and natives began retaliating for crimes committed against them, the settlers petitioned the U.S. Army for aid. In 1859 the 6th U.S. infantry led by Major Edward Johnson was called to Round Valley.[6] Major Johnson sent Lieutenant Edward Dillon ahead with 17 men to scout the area and assess the situation. Lieutenant Dillon reported back that the settlers misrepresented the situation. Instead of settlers falling prey to natives, the settlers had in fact already killed hundreds of natives, whose hostile actions had been taken out of revenge or in an effort to survive. The problem, he reported, went all the way up the chain to Supt. Henley, who had been involved in organizing many of these raiding parties.[15] In fact, Supt. Henley was in league with Judge Serranus C. Hastings (a former Iowa Supreme Court Justice), who helped him design plans for the removal of natives from the local territory. As part of their plan, they launched raiding parties and held town-hall style public gatherings where settlers aired their grievances, leading to increased racial prejudice and hatred towards the natives.[16] Judge Hastings was also involved in real estate and livestock trade, and in one instance, the natives stole Judge Hastings’s $2,000 stallion in retaliation for the beatings they received at the hands of Judge Hastings’s ranch manager, H.L. Hall.[17] Hall had been involved in many brutal assaults on natives. He complained to Lieutenant Dillon that the natives were stealing white supplies. Dillon urged Hall to let him handle the situation, but Hall ignored the command and took his own men raiding. By March 23, 1859, Hall and his men had killed about 240 natives.[15] Dillon reported that Hall did not distinguish between guilty natives or innocent ones, and that his murders of even women and children were unprovoked.[18] In fact, later on when Hall asked for soldiers at his property to protect his livestock, the soldiers refused to do anything to help him, since they were only ordered to defend a native onslaught, and they did not believe what was happening resembled a native attack.[19] The natives faced a choice of either starving to death on the reservations that provided them with no food, or venturing off into the mountainous regions of Mendocino County and risk slaughter by local settlers.

Yurok Canoe Klamath River

Walter S. Jarboe and the Mendocino War

As the conflict reached a boiling point, Judge Hastings made the executive decision to fire Hall and move all of the remaining natives to the Mendocino Reservation, more to save his property than for the protection of the natives.[20] In June 1859 the “Citizens of Nome Cult Valley”, a group of 39 settlers from Round Valley, petitioned the governor of California, Governor John B. Weller, for help in protecting the settlers from native attacks.[21] This petition, promoted and pushed for by Henley and Judge Hastings, was one of more than a dozen letters and petitions that the white settlers of Round Valley sent to the governor requesting government funding for volunteers who sought to protect white property.[22] Within these petitions, the settlers stated their intentions to remove the natives from Mendocino through a “war of extermination”.[23] Weller turned to the Army for advice on the petition, seeking to know whether or not the allegations of the settlers were true, since the petitions alleged that over $40,000 in property damages had occurred and over 70 whites had been slain by natives. The petitions also requested that Walter S. Jarboe, a Mendocino County resident, be assigned captain of this group.[24] In 1858, Jarboe had been a leader on a raid in the Mendocino Reservation that killed over 60 natives.[15] Countering the petitioners’ claims, Major Johnson and Lieutenant Dillon issued reports telling a different story, claiming that only 2 whites and about 600 native had been killed in the past year.[15]

In the meantime, Hastings had grown tired of waiting, and created a new company anyway, without federal funding, with Jarboe as captain. The company was often referred to as the Eel River Rangers, and Hastings and Henley promised to provide the funding (they later went back on this promise, forcing the state to pay for Jarboe and his men).[25] From July 1859 to January 1860, Jarboe and his men ravaged native lands and massacred many natives. Claiming that the natives were guilty of theft and violence, Jarboe and his men engaged in an “ethnic cleansing genocide”.[26] Trying to justify his actions, Jarboe and his men used carcasses from plundered villages to try and give evidence for native thievery. It was a shoot-first, ask-questions-later approach that gave Jarboe and his men the powers of “judge, jury, and executioner”.[27] From July through the middle of August, Jarboe and his men had already killed at least 50 men, women, and children, prompting Major Johnson to write to Governor Weller. The governor wrote to Jarboe several times, sanctioning the raids, but asking Jarboe to leave out women and children and any innocent natives. Jarboe largely ignored these letters.[28] Through October Jarboe and his men continued to rampage through the countryside, killing and capturing natives. Those natives they captured were sent to the Mendocino Reservation and the Nome Cult Farm.[29] On February 18, 1860, Jarboe summarized his record, claiming that in 23 engagements, he and his men killed 283 warriors, captured 292 prisoners, while only sustaining 5 casualties themselves. The bill to the state for their five months of service was $11,143.43.[34] However, scholars now believe that the number of native casualties was grossly understated, as was the cost to the state. New California Governor John G. Downey now inherited the massive debts incurred by Jarboe and the settlers’ raids, debts that the state could not afford to pay.[31] Damage done to Yuki and other tribal cultures was incalculable.

The public reception of the conflict was mixed. A newly created Joint Special Committee on the Mendocino Indian War (also called the Select Committee on Indian Affairs) heard testimony from local settlers. The evidence was contradictory, with stories differing from each account, but some things remained consistent. Jarboe claimed that his actions were provoked by citing numbers of whites killed, but Dillon’s reports contradicted those statements. Dillon wrote to his superiors that white settlers were at fault for the entire conflict, and that the locals had funded the slaughter.[35] Many settlers claimed that the natives began the trouble by stealing cattle, while others testified that natives were allowed to eat the cattle and horses that strayed and died of natural causes.[34] Nevertheless, a general consensus emerged that the settlers wanted the natives off of their land and used any means necessary to force them out, including blaming natives for stealing livestock. The investigation concluded that no war had actually occurred in Mendocino County, since the slaughter of natives who offered little resistance and launched no counterattacks could not be considered a war. Rather, the conflict could be more correctly labeled as massacre, and later on historians began calling it a genocide. The committee also recommended some laws to help protect California Indians in the future, but none of them were ever put into place.[34]


Between the time people settled in Mendocino County and the end of the ‘war’ (1856-1860), the population of Indians decreased by 80%.[36] The rest were relegated to the Mendocino Reservation and the Nome Cult Farm.[36] In the late 1880s, tensions left unresolved from this conflict would lead to the Round Valley War when, in defiance of federal authority, settlers once again began to take over areas of the reservation, ignoring federal policies and settling on Yuki lands.[37]

The natives were left facing major challenges. Working against them were hunger, unequal weapons, repeated and surprise attacks, their vulnerable position on reservations, and their lack of ability to speak on their own behalf. Jarboe’s forces also alienated some white settlers, slaughtering their livestock if they refused to give them food or the necessary supplies.[25] However, most of the damage was done to the natives and was especially deadly given the timing. With winter around the corner, the natives had spent months preparing and harvesting crops. Now, with raids, the men who farmed and hunted and the women who gathered and made the food were killed, and native stores of winter supplies were plundered and lost.[30] Jarboe and his men meanwhile continued their raiding and killing through the winter with the goal of removing the natives completely from Round Valley.[31] Some settlers also decided to assist in this cause, with ranchers leading attacks and raiding parties of their own. In one 22-day period, 40 ranchers killed at least 150 natives.[29] Finally, on January 3, 1860, Governor Weller disbanded Jarboe’s group.[32] The public swiftly opposed this decision, petitioning Governor Weller to reinstate the Eel River Rangers, but the protest was unsuccessful.[33]

What do the Justice Department Memos Say?
U.S. News & World Report

Dec 11, 2014 – Tribes Can Legalize Pot, Justice Department Decides … Indian tribes to grow and sell marijuana on reservation lands. … Read the memo: …

Cronology of  Events in the Media Leading Up the Attack on Pomo Sovereignty and Self Determination

Pinoleville Tribe to Meet with Mendocino County. County …
Apr 25, 2011 – Pinoleville Tribe to Meet with Mendocino County. County Should DENY any …. Disenrollment IS BLOODLESS Genocide. Disenrollment IS …
Pinoleville cannabis project to support tribal infrastructure…/growing-green-pinoleville-cannabis-proj…
Jul 16, 2015 – The Pinoleville Pomo Nation is providing readers of The Ukiah Daily Journal with a first-hand, exclusive look at the people, the processes and …
Tribe, Sheriff disagree on marijuana project – Ukiah Daily ……/tribe-sheriff-disagree-on-marijuana-proje…
Jun 4, 2015 – Mike Canales, president of the business board of the Pinoleville Pomo Nation affixes a … By Carole Brodsky, For the Ukiah Daily Journal.

Pinoleville Tribe’s ‘collective’ collaboration in development ……/pinoleville-tribes-collective-collaboration…
Jul 11, 2015 – The Pinoleville Pomo Nation is providing Ukiah Daily Journal readers … John Hardin, foreman for the Pinoleville Medical Cannabis Project, …

Pinoleville Pomo Nation hires security team at marijuana farm

Jul 17, 2015 – A cannabis plant. Photo from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service via Wikipedia The Ukiah Daily Journal continues its exclusive look at the marijuana …

Pinoleville asked to move pot plants – Ukiah Daily Journal…/pinoleville-asked-to-move-pot-plants
Jul 15, 2015 – Marijuana plants that could be seen from inside a fenced-off area from Highway 101 at the Pinoleville Pomo Nation were recently moved at the .

Deputies cut down Pinoleville pot plants in Ukiah

Ukiah Daily Journal1 day ago
By Justine Frederiksen, Ukiah Daily Journal … The plants were growing at 650 Pinoleville Drive, and while the deputies were cutting them …

CLUES SOUGHT in Disappearance & Murder of Rachel Sloan of Laytonville: DNA Identifies Burned Remains Found in Refrigerator as Missing Laytonville Woman Rachel Sloan:

•September 22, 2015 • Leave a Comment

CLUES SOUGHT in Disappearance & Murder of Rachel Sloan of Laytonville:

DNA Identifies Burned Remains Found in Refrigerator as 25 yo Rachel Sloan of Laytonville.

Rachel Sloan Laytonville Ca

Victim photo released in hopes of generating leads in cold case
Burned human remains identified two years later as 25 yo Rachel Sloan of Laytonville Ca.

The Mendocino County Sheriff’s Office is hoping someone will contact investigators with information regarding the murder of a local tribal member.

Investigators said DNA samples from the family of 25-year-old Rachel Audrey Sloan were matched to remains found back in 2013. They said that match was made on September 1st of this year.

crime scene Rachel Sloan Covelo Road

On May 16, 2013, deputies were called to a secluded area on Highway 162 north of Willits for the report of burned human remains discarded inside a refrigerator.
Deputies located what they believed to be a charm bracelet or necklace with the remains.

In May 2015, deputies said family members of Rachel Sloan reported her missing from Laytonville. They said they hadn’t seen her since August 2012.

The death of Rachel Sloan is being treated as a homicide investigation.

Anyone with information is encouraged to call the Mendocino County Sheriff’s Office tip line at 707-234-2100.

HAPPY HARVEST! Fires and Drought INCREASE 2015 California Marijuana Prices

•September 22, 2015 • Leave a Comment

Severe Fires and Severe Drought have pushed the Prices Up for California’s nearly 100,000+ Cannabis Farmers in 2015. Prospects Look  Good for California’s Cannabis Farmers who Survived the Drought and Wildfires.

A severe 2015 drought in California which put pressure on many of California’s Cannabis farmers to reduce crop size  or reduce the amount of water plants received combined with nearly 1,000,000 acres of California Cannabis growing region going up in flames in a series of Wildfires spurred by logging, climate change and four years of drought has seen a dramatic 50% price increase for the State Medical Cannabis Farmers.

With this summer’s  Lake County Fires including the Jerusalem, Rocky and the recent Valley fire scorching across Lake County combined with hundreds of other fires across the State including  Humboldt, Trinity and Buute fires, a significant amount of prime cannabis growing regions have been put out of commission for the time being with entire gardens being left as charred remains.

Farmers whose crops were close to these fires are also at loss due to “smokey smelling buds” which like grapes, the cannabis can absorb the smokey smell of the wild fire.  Wineries report similar losses if there is a significant amount of wild fire smoke near the wine grape fields. A large amount of the Cannabis grown in the Emerald Triangle region is sold to farmers collectives in the Bay Area and Southern California where it is tested and prepared for resale to Medical Cannabis Patients suffering from a host of ailments. Cannabis from Northern California’s “Emerald Triangle Region” is well sought after due to it;’s well known quality, distinct flavors due to the climate as well as the technology and growing techniques exclusive to the area and developed by local Emerald Triangle Growers which goes back nearly 5 decades to the 1960’s when “back to the landers” began cultivating the rare Heirloom strains so sought after in by todays “Wholefoods Awareness” shoppers.  Cannabis in the Emerald Triangle is replacing the destruction of the Redwood Ecosystem by Global Timber Corporations,  Cannabis Production provides Cottage Industry jobs at home for many folks inside the Emerald Triangle and Northern California, indeed the communities are busy with people fueling up, getting propane, buying supplies at the local Hardware stores and going shopping for hungry trimmers. It’s the beginning of Harvest 2015 in the Emerald Triangle and throughout Northern California

Medical Marijuana Dispensaries in the Bay Area and beyond are already well aware of the current market increase and lack of buds compared to other years. The 2015 busts in the Island Mountain, Mendocino and Humboldt region also proved to increase prices for farmers as well. Many of the springs “light dep crops” were busted this year in a political move where local sheriffs would later claim plants in 5 gallon buckets were using 6 gallons per day claiming farmers were the reason rivers were running dry ignoring the fact that 50% of the Eel River is stolen to the Russian River by PG&E via Van Arsdale Lake Mendocino….

Prices for quality organic outdoor have not been better for 4 or 5 years and there seems to be a search on for “Quality Bud” according to the local community in the Emerald Triangle. Good Luck Farmers and Happy Harvest 2015

Black Garlic x Sour Diesel

You’re It – Alan Watts

•September 21, 2015 • Leave a Comment

alan watts

  • Alan Watts
  • Alan Wilson Watts was a British-born American philosopher, writer, and speaker, best known as an interpreter and populariser of Eastern philosophy for a Western audience. Wikipedia
  • Born: January 6, 1915, Chislehurst, London, United Kingdom
  • Died: November 16, 1973, Mount Tamalpais, San Francisco, CA
  • Schools of thought: Zen, Catholicism, Pantheism, Hinduism, Christianity, Taoism, Religious naturalism
  • Quotes
    The only way to make sense out of change is to plunge into it, move with it, and join the dance.
    I have realized that the past and future are real illusions, that they exist in the present, which is what there is and all there is.
    Trying to define yourself is like trying to bite your own teeth.

Evacuees Want To Go Home, But are not “ALLOWED TO” Cobb, Middletown, Valley Fire~ Why you NEVER want to End Up in an EVACUATION CENTER

•September 18, 2015 • 1 Comment

Valley Fire

Middletown Valley Fire Evacuees Want To Go Home, But are not “ALLOWED TO” ~

Why you NEVER want to End Up in an EVACUATION CENTER

From the Headlines: Valley Fire Evacuees ANGRY! FIRE IS OUT! Residents WANT TO GO HOME! Lake County Sheriff Denies Residents the Right to Return Home!
Evacuees Claim they are Being Treated Like Refugees!
Middle Town Fire is Out, But Government Won’t Let Residents Return Home!
Residents Taking Matters into their own hands….
“We got news for you, you can put it on the media, Us Middletown Boys are going home whether the Highway Patrol is there or not”another man claims, we want to go home, our home is still there, we want to go home, What are they gonna do, shoot us?”


Valley Fire: Cal Fire holds community meeting with evacuees

Meanwhile, more evacuees continue to pour into the evacuation center. The number of evacuees has doubled since Monday.

Tensions are rising, as it’s getting crowded — and the community wants answers.

At the meeting, Cal Fire let people know where things stand, but the fire is still just 35 percent contained and has charred 73,700 acres, with nearly 600 homes destroyed. Thousands of homes remain threatened.


Petaluma Animal Services Facebook Page:

Lake County Animal Control Director, Bill Davidson Making it Difficult for Animal Rescue Efforts in Valley Fire; #Valleyfire
From Petaluma Animal Services Website:
“We’ve been asked to leave Lake County by Lake County Animal Control Director, Bill Davidson, as we’re “not authorized to be there.” He told us flatly, to get out. Since we’re about the animals, we respectfully declined. We will not leave, we will not argue, we are here for the people and animals suffering from this disaster. #ValleyFire #PetalumaAnimalShelter #ArmyofKindness  ”

Man on “looter patrol” near ‪#‎ValleyFire‬ arrested for impersonating police officer –

THIS IS SO WRONG! Many of these people have homes and animals to return to…
Valley Fire victims upset they can’t check on their homes #Valleyfire
Welcome to Martial Law…. Valley Fire evacuees are getting anxious each day and now some are learning they may not be able to see their homes anytime soon after an escort program was suspended due to compromised manpower.

Mendocino Firefighters Take Stand Against “Corporate Redwood Tycoons Herbicide Spraying” of the Redwood Forest

•September 15, 2015 • Leave a Comment

forest fire mendocinoFirefighters and Citizen Initiative on Intentionally Killed Trees Left Standing

This initiative safeguards firefighters from unnecessary manufactured hazards and residents from loss of critical infrastructure, including escape routes and telecommunications lifelines. It effectively places people before private industry profit, shifting damage losses from the citizens to the corporations who stand to profit from radical forest management practices. It’s about industry accountability.

– Ted Williams, Fire Chief, Albion Little River Fire Protection District

Read the full text of the ordinance here

What is the issue?

Standing dead trees pose an unnecessary risk to firefighters, citizens and property.

Read more about it here

What Can I do?

Find out where to sign the petition here

Send a message to Citizens for Fire Safe Forests here

Learn More:

Firefighters in Mendocino County have filed a citizen initiative to address fire danger caused by intentionally killed and left standing trees. This is done by commercial forest companies with a technique called “hack & squirt”. There are now millions of dead trees standing in our coastal forests, adding dry fuel to the extremely dry conditions during this extended drought.


Hillside covered with dead standing tanoaks east of Comptche as seen from the Ukiah-Comptche Road
Photo  by Mike Kalantarian

Some background:

  • When redwood forests are (over) cut tanoaks increase in density and abundance. This a natural process of what ecologists call “secondary succession,” where after disturbance the forest goes through a succession of species that eventually replace each other and are eventually replaced by a forest dominated by redwood.
  • The successional species are important because they prepare the site for the return of the redwoods by stabilizing soils, retaining moisture, replenishing soil nutrients, providing shade, and many other critical ecological functions.
  • Shortcutting this process by poisoning important successional species such as tanoak, madrone, and manzanita is a risky way of regenerating a severely damaged redwood forest ecosystem.
  • There are many reasons why hardwoods should not be killed and left standing, besides the obvious fire hazard. A mature tanoak tree can produce as much as 250 pounds of acorns that were a favored and critical food source of the Pomo Indians of Mendocino and Sonoma Counties. They are also an important food source for many species of wildlife including deer, bear, boar, dusky-footed woodrat, turkey, quail, squirrels and many others.
  • There are many other uses for tanoaks such as flooring, biochar, and firewood, if they must be removed

When passed, this initiative will declare the practice of intentionally killed and left standing trees a public nuisance. 2502 petition signatures will be needed from Mendocino County voters to qualify for the June 2016 primary ballot to help put an end to this practice.”

Afraid of “BIG TIMBER COMPANY”S MIGHT” Mendocino County Supervisors Take “NO STAND” and Leave Mendocino Firefighters in Danger

Standing Dead Trees: Major Fire Hazard

Board of Supervisors Office
Mendocino County
501 Low Gap Road, Room 1090
Ukiah, CA 95482

Dear Supervisors:

I’m writing to you as a rural fire chief concerned about a local forestry practice slipping between the cracks of public oversight. I ask for the issue to be discussed and vetted. I want to work with you and industry to find a reasonable solution.

Our fire district, an area of approximately forty-four square miles situated between the Navarro River and the town of Mendocino (map attached), includes a strip of grassland along the coast, but is largely comprised of forest lands. Approximately half the land in our district is zoned for timber and most residential development consists of homes tucked away in forest settings. A considerable segment of our district’s population benefits from just one means of egress. Residents on Albion Ridge Road, Middle Ridge Road and a plethora of adjoining shared driveways all funnel to a single intersection with California State Route 1. Residents in Little River have more options for emergency escape, but demonstrated by the windstorm of February 8, 2015, which completely closed all access roads in Little River, it doesn’t take much for this community to become an unreachable island.

Late last year, I attended an onsite field presentation hosted by Mendocino Redwood Company as part of their 1-14-080 MEN timber harvest plan review. The tour highlighted a number of public safety concerns and inspired me to write to Leslie Markham, Deputy Chief, Forest Practice, CAL FIRE. To date, a response has not been received. Attached you can find my letter, dated Nov 15, 2014, as well as one from my board, dated January 14, 2015, asking that they be treated as a signatory to my letter. During the field walk, John Andersen, Director of Forest Operations for Mendocino Redwood Company, showed us an experimental area on “J Road” in Albion where brush had been pruned by hand crews. Admiring the work, I asked whether this pattern could be executed across the entire plan. He offered cost as the main impediment blocking widespread adoption.

Sitting at the agency table during the CAL FIRE Second Review of 1-14-080 on February 5, 2015, I asked Charlie Martin, Division Chief, CAL FIRE, whether fire risk to the neighboring residents had been studied. He didn’t respond directly to the question, but explained he has participated at nearly every “big fire” in our county over the past two decades. I don’t discount his expertise and we should commend him for his demonstrated commitment to public safety, but for a matter so critical to health and safety, I would prefer his expertise be combined with formal study. I further pressed for an answer: does CAL FIRE have responsibility to study fire risk in the course of evaluating a timber harvest plan? I mean no disrespect to Chief Martin or his staff, but I left frustrated by the lack of clarity on ownership of the domain. If CAL FIRE has authority, the lack of memorialized study should be scrutinized. If this is not within scope of CAL FIRE review, which agency does own the responsibility? Any oversight, at all?

I cannot fault the applicant. Best I can tell, they operate in compliance with applicable law and work in an environment of ever increasing and arguably onerous regulatory creep. In response to the questions I have raised, they’ve even stepped forward to brainstorm evacuation routes, adding credence to a public concern in desperate need of remedy. For this, I am thankful.

I’m also not ready to place culpability in the hands of state regulators. It appears they are diligently following process. Unfortunately, the process, as implemented, seems to omit consideration for public safety, perhaps because forest management methods have outpaced legislative action.

Regulatory process aside, I see the proposed harvest as part and parcel of a much larger scale forest management endeavor. An intense harvest will encourage unwanted species to flourish under what pre-harvest is shaded by a redwood canopy. Unmanaged, tanoak can pose a challenge to foresters who wish to rebalance the forest toward redwood production. Due to bottom line cost analysis, a method known as “hack and squirt” is locally employed to kill off the unwanted species by hacking into the tree trunk and injecting poison.

Herbicide use is outside the scope of fire concern, but I’ve come to understand that the practice involves leaving the dead trees standing. Attached is an aerial photograph of Comptche, showing us just how many dead trees are produced.

I have raised concerns to the Mendocino Unit of CAL FIRE about a predominately dead forest impacting fire risk, but oddly most responses have been of the form “your area is already a high risk” and “dead trees burn the same as live trees”. In my experience, dead, seasoned wood burns more efficiently than green wood. An intentionally dead forest in decay is a fabrication of fuel ladders, a pattern of vegetation that allows a fire to climb up from the forest floor into the tree canopy where it is more challenging to suppress. This is the very situation public policy attempts to prevent with California Public Resource Code 4291 as explained by CAL FIRE’s “Defensible Space” brochures.

David Shew, Staff Chief, Planning and Risk Analysis, Department of Forestry and Fire Prevention (CAL FIRE), wrote in response to my inquiry regarding dead standing timber, “From my education and experience, a forest with dead standing timber can pose additional and different risks versus a healthy forest.” His full letter is attached.

Credible research has been conducted and published in respected journals. The most applicable study I have read was coincidentally co-authored by Hugh Scanlon, Unit Chief of Humboldt-Del Norte Unit, CAL FIRE, “Sudden oak deathcaused changes to surface fuel loading and potential fire behavior in Douglas-firtanoak forests.1”

I strongly encourage you to read the full report. Of particular interest to this discussion, the researchers used our geographic area with our forest species as their study plot:

Our study area encompassed Douglas-fir-tanoak forests across three counties in northwestern California: Sonoma, Mendocino, and Humboldt…”

And further, they focused on trees killed using both the ‘hack and squirt’ method and the exact poison (Imazapyr) that we see in our area:

Tanoak trees in the study sites were killed via ‘hack and squirt’ injections of either glyphosate or imazapyr (DiTomaso et al., 2004) so that dead trees were killed while standing, as in the situation with P. ramorum2. It has been observed that the pattern of tanoak mortality across the landscape in many herbicide treatment areas strongly resembles that caused by P. ramorum.”

They discovered a twofold in downed debris:

“…total weight of downed woody debris (all size classes) approximately doubled with the herbicide treatment…”

And concluded:

Fuel models based on the observed surface fuel accumulations in herbicide-treated and diseased plots predict that for some early-to-midphase (2–8 years) herbicide-treated forests, and for late-phase (8 years plus) diseased forests, rates of spread, flame lengths, and fire line intensities could increase significantly over the baseline, challenging effective firefighter response.”

One of the co-authors of the above study is J. Morgan Varner, a professor who specializes in fire ecology. Parallels in fire behavior have been observed between trees killed by Sudden Oak Death and those killed by herbicides. In an article, “HSU Scientists Pinpoint Acute Forest Fire Threat” Humboldt State Now (May 06, 2010), Varner described fire behavior of dead tanoak trees:

The energy released is so great you can’t combat [crown fires] with standard firefighting practices,” Varner said. “You just have to move back, and let them die down. You could never imagine attacking this thing.”

Once the tree turns brown, we know it has really low foliage moisture content and it is ready to be ignited.”

Varner was again quoted in 2012 “Scientists warn of disease-borne North Coast fire threat” Northern California Society of American Foresters:

These unnatural fuel arrangements can lead to fires so intense that you can’t combat them with standard, ground-based fire-fighting tactics”

In a time of severe drought we desperately need all parties to cooperate on a path towards improved fire safety. Governance should not allow private industry to create a public nuisance, certainly not one which jeopardizes life and loss of property. Private property rights must be protected, but fire does not respect property boundaries. By its nature, a fire hazard on one property adversely affects the rights of adjoining owners to use and enjoy their property, in this case impacting the health and safety of a community at large. While it’s true that our residents freely chose to live in and against a forest, I do not believe anyone contemplated the practice of intentional dead standing timber. Property rights on both sides of the line and totality of the circumstances must be considered.

Our entire district overlaps with State Responsibility Area, where the State of California has primary financial responsibility for the prevention and suppression of wildland fires, but this does not preclude our involvement in forest fires. In fact, due to the placement and only seasonal staffing of the nearest CAL FIRE station, my fire department typically arrives first on scene. We were first on scene to our portion of the June, 2008 Lightning Complex fires and have a history of containing forest fires in the early stages. Firefighters accept the risks inherent in combating nature. They should not assume additional man made risks that could otherwise be mitigated. The perils created by intentional dead standing timber will harm our volunteer firefighters’ ability to confidently contain small fires.

This predicament could be a consequence of a deficiency in public policy described by the Grand Jury in, “SEVEN FIRE DISTRICTS OF RURAL MENDOCINO COUNTY” (June 28, 2005). The Jury’s report touched on two shortcomings pertinent to fire safety: inadequate district funding and lack of a county fire prevention program. In response to the funding concern, last year voters in my district passed Measure M, significantly increasing their special assessment. The second deficiency, “Mendocino County does not have a program of fire prevention, as opposed to fire suppression. The Mendocino Board of Supervisors has the authority to adopt a more stringent fire safety code that would incorporate a fire prevention program” has not been addressed despite a finding of agreement. “The Board of Supervisors agrees with this finding if it pertains to County Government.”

Ideally, the fire community should remain isolated from political debates about forest practice and use of economic poisons, but this relatively new radical practice of generating dead standing timber combined with drought conditions and unprecedented climate change demands evenhanded and responsible action. Unchecked by public oversight, it poses life safety risks to both residents and firefighters.

To be clear, I am not advocating specific action, but rather suggesting we apply precaution and treat fire prevention as a core government health and safety function, while minimizing the impact on industry. Sudden Oak Death is an unfortunate natural hazard. Actually creating such conditions during a severe drought as means to increase profit should only be allowed under careful review.

I am obligated to express this concern now rather than waiting until after a major fire has occurred. While I respect the timber companies’ profit seeking goals and private property rights, we must all work together to avert what is potentially calamitous.

Let’s coordinate?


Ted R. Williams

Chief, Albion Little River Fire Protection District

Sign the Petition

​Citizens for Fire Safe Forests volunteers will be tabling and gathering signatures to qualify the initiative for the June 2016 ballot at the following times and locations:​

  • Gualala: Fridays Vigil noon-1 in front of the Post Office
  • Gualala: Pay and Take Market; 1st Saturday of the month 9-11 am
  • Mendocino: in front of the Post Office
  • Mendocino: Corners of the Mouth, sign the petition at the register when Garnish is working
  • Ukiah: Mendocino Environmental Center, 106 W. Standley, Mon, Wed, Thurs 10-4; Tues 1-4
  • Ukiah: Saturdays, Farmers Market, Alex Thomas Plaza, Clay & School 9-noon
  • Willits: Thursdays, Farmers Market, Willits City Park, 3-6 pm
  • Willits: Mariposa Market TBA

More locations to follow soon

The Earth Destroyed by Fire, Ancient Pomo Myth tells of California being Destroyed by Fires Long Ago, Listen to the Pomo

•September 15, 2015 • Leave a Comment

Valley Fire

With many fires currently ravaging Pomo Territory in California in 2015, these stories along with many other local Pomo legends and California Indian stories were nearly forgotten and are rarely told any longer. They seem to hold forewarning about the dangers of Massive California Wildfires destroying the Pomo World and the Earth. They also tell of Fire as being a source of renewal and change in the natural environment, stories of fires, animals and erosion include the changing of watercourses and the drying up of springs which occurs during these massive fires.

More Stories and Legends can be found here:

A Composite Myth of the Pomo Indians

Published January 1, 1906

This paper has been communicated as part of the Proceedings of the California Branch of the
American Folk-Lore Society.

This myth with others from the Pomo region was collected during the summer of 1904 as a part of the work of the Ethnological and Archaeological Survey of California carried on by the Department of Anthropology of the University of California, through the liberality of Mrs. Phoebe A. Hearst. The myth was obtained from an informant who lives near Ukiah, Mendocino County, and it was first told to him by old people residing near Upper Lake, a town on the northern shore of Clear Lake the creation of which is here recounted. The constituent parts of this myth are, however, common throughout all of, at least, the upper Russian River and Clear Lake region.

pomo bark roundhouse

The following is a typical myth  of the Pomo Indians of California, and will serve to show some of the characteristics of Pomo mythology. It will be noted that this particular myth is a composite consisting of six elements or separate, though logically connected, ideas : Coyote as a trickster, and the miraculous birth of his children ; the destruction of the world by fire ; the creation by Coyote of Clear Lake ; the creation by Coyote of human beings ; the theft of the sun ; and the transmutation of human beings into animals. These have been obtained from other informants as separate stories, but as a rule the first three are uniformly combined to make one complete narrative, while the other three are told separately, or are at times, particularly in the case of the story of the creation of human beings, combined with certain other myths. There was a large village at No-napo-tl (Kelseyville, Lake County) and here there lived two Wood-duck (wadawada) sisters who always kept apart from the rest of the inhabitants of the village, and, al- though there were many of the men of the village who admired them, the sisters persistently refused to have anything to do with them. One of their admirers was Coyote, who tried various means to induce one of them to become his wife, but all without success, so that he finally determined to resort to trickery. It being then the food-gathering season, he proposed that all of the women of the village should go on a buckeye gathering excursion into the neigh- boring mountains while the men were busy hunting and fishing, or were engaged in making implements at the village. The Wood-duck sisters had a very old and partly blind grand- mother who had gone out camping with another party, although they did not know this. When they went to get her to go with them, they found an old woman there who was covered with a rabbit- skin blanket and looked exactly like her, but who was really Coyote.


The Wood-ducks led this blind old woman along out to the camp and made a bed for her, for she was very tired.

That evening when the food had been prepared, the Wood-ducks gave some to the old woman, but she said, ” My daughters, I can- not eat. I cannot raise myself up. I want to sit up and eat.” The elder of the two sisters sat at the old woman’s back to hold her up, but Coyote said, ” I cannot sit up when only one of you holds me up. One of you must sit in front of me.” . . . Then the two sisters began to fight Coyote and were soon joined by others of the women of the camp, who brought clubs and stones, for every one knew that Coyote had been playing another of his tricks. There were born immediately four children. The first two Coyote rescued, placing them in his hunting sack. The other two were killed by the enraged women. Coyote immediately ran back to the village and the women followed soon after. Coyote continued to live at No-napo-ti with his two children, but he had no one to care for them while he was away hunting and fishing, and the people of the village treated them very badly whenever he was gone. They threw rocks and sticks at the children, called them bad names, and even threw coals of fire on them. When the children were old enough to get around by themselves, Coyote determined to revenge himself and his children for the abuse they had suffered. He accordingly went east to the end of the world and there dug a huge tunnel which he filled with fir bark. He disappeared regularly every morning for four days, and no one could think what he was doing, for he went about it very secretly. Some of the people asked what he was doing while he was gone all day, but he replied that he was only hunting food for his children.

After a long time Coyote put all kinds of food, water, clothing, a fire drill and other implements, and also his two children, into his hunting sack (ye^), and after sundown went on the roof of the dance-house, where he watched toward the east for some time. Finally he called out, ” I do not know what can be the matter ; it looks as if something is wrong. Come out and see.” Soon there was a great noise like thunder, and smoke and fire appeared all over the east as far as they could see from north to south. Every one knew that Coyote had something to do with it, and all began to ask him to save them, calling him father and other terms of relationship ; but Coyote replied, ” I shall not be saved either. I do not know what has happened. I shall burn up too, I suppose ; my body is no rock or water.” But the people all cried to him to save them as the fire came nearer and nearer, until at last it completely surrounded them and left but a very small space about the village un-burned.

wood duck

Coyote now shouted, “e ,” with his hand uplifted (all finger tips pointing upward), four times, and presently there came down out of the sky a feather rope (yuluk) on the end of which Spider (to-cbu) hung with his back downward. Coyote jumped on to Spider’s belly and the feather rope immediately started to ascend. After a short time Coyote wished to stop, so Spider stopped the ascent and instantly spun a web large enough for Coyote to walk around on and look at the burning world beneath, which was by that time entirely on fire. They then went on upward for a time, whereupon Spider stopped and spun another web so that Coyote might give his children some food. A third stop was made and a web spun so that Coyote might give the children water, and a fourth and last stop was made and a web spun so that all might rest and take a last look at the burning world. At last they arrived at the gate 1 leading into the sky and entered. Spider, who was its keeper, remained at the gate, but Coyote and his children, who now got out of the hunting sack, went eastward toward the house of Madumda, 2 which they saw immediately upon entering the gate. Their road lay over a plain covered with grass and sweet-smelling flowers. There were, however, no people to be seen. On the way Coyote and the children stopped and rested four times, but at last arrived at the house, where Coyote knocked on the door. Madumda came and invited them into the house ; saying, “He he, sinwa no balma”; what have you come here for? I know you have been doing something. That is why you come here in this manner. Why do you want to do something bad always ? Why do you want to treat your children (all people) that way? Why are you not sorry for your children ? Now, go back and live as you did before and do not act that way.” Coyote said he would go back on the following day, and Madumda then instructed him as to what he should do when he went to the earth and how he should act toward people in order that he might be on friendly terms with them. Coyote returned to the gate and Spider then took him back to the earth in the same manner as he had come ; but the earth was much changed. Formerly the mountains were high, but now they were much lower, the tops having been burned off. The trees, rocks, and

1 The gate, an opening through the sky, is guarded by snakes who allow only those who reside in the heavens, or persons for whom Madumda has sent, to enter. 2 Madumda, who is the chief deity in Porno mythology, is the elder brother of Coyote and lives in a large sweat-house in the sky, where, to a great extent, the conditions are the same as on earth except that there there is nothing dis- agreeable.

streams were all gone, and the appearance of the whole country was different. He found all things which had lived on earth lying around roasted, and he commenced to eat everything he found, deer, birds, fish, snakes, and so on, until he grew very hot and thirsty. He then began to look for water, running about from place to place where there had formerly been springs and streams, but all were dry, and he nearly gave up the search. Finally, however, be wandered toward the west and found water in the ocean. He drank copiously four times. Having completely satisfied his thirst, he started homeward, but had not gone far when he began to feel sick. He grew steadily worse as he raced on, endeavoring to reach his home before he should die, and was only able to reach Kabai-dano (Wild Onion Mountain), a bald hill on the western shore of Clear Lake, where he fell upon his back groaning. Kabai-dano was really Kuksu’s 1 sudatory (sweat lodge), and when he heard Coyote groaning on the roof he came out much surprised. ” O who ‘s there ? I did not know there was anybody here.” Coyote replied, ” Yes, it is I. I have been eating fish and meat, and I got hot and thirsty, and there was nobody around, so I went west and found water. I took a drink, but I took too much and am sick. I did not know that there was any one here. I wish you would doctor me in any way you know.” Kuksu soon prepared to doctor Coyote, and returned with his body painted black, and wearing a very large headdress. He had a large whistle in his mouth and carried a long black medicine wand in his hand. As Kuksu came out of the sudatory (sweat lodge) he ran in a counter-clockwise direction four times around it, then in a clockwise direction four times around it. He then ran four times around Coyote, then ran up to him from the south, and re- turned backwards to the point of starting, where he turned his head as far as possible to the left. Again running around his patient four times, he approached him from the east and completed the same cycle, following it by the same cycle from the north and then

1 Kuksu is an important character in Pomo mythology and in certain ceremonials. He is a person of characteristic Pomo physique, but possesses great power as a medicine-man or doctor. He always appears painted entirely black, wearing on his head a very large headdress, called big head, or Kuksu-kaiya, and with a tuft of shredded tule fibre attached to the small of his back. He carries a black cane or wand (cakoik), and, while doctoring, blows constantly a large whistle made of elderberry wood. According to Dr. Dixon (Maidu Myths, p. 42) Kuksu is found also among the Maidu, there being the first man created by Earth-Initiate. His appearance is, however, quite different, he being depicted as a person of pure white complexion, with pink eyes, black hair, and shining teeth, and withal very handsome. He possessed great knowledge and played an important part in the final disposition and distribution of the people created by Earth-Initiate.

from the west. He then ran four times around his patient in a counter-clockwise direction, after which he turned his head to the left ; then four times in a clockwise direction, again turning his head to the left. He then told Coyote that he would cry, “e ” four times, and jump on his belly. He then ran around the sick man in a counter-clockwise direction and cried “e ” four times ; then ran up to him blowing his whistle and pointing his medicine wand at his belly four times, and at the end of the fourth time he turned his head to the left. He then repeated the complete cycle of four runs and the turn of the head to the left. He then cried, ” e ” once, ran, and jumped on Coyote’s belly, which burst with a sound like that of a great explosion. The water which Coyote had drunk at the ocean ran down in every direction even to as far as Tule Lake and Scott’s Valley, and the rivers commenced running, so that the water collected in the lowest places and formed Clear Lake. 1 And in the water there were fish, snakes, turtles, and all kinds of water birds ; for, as Ktiksu jumped upon his belly, Coyote said, “There will be much water and plenty of fish, snakes, frogs, turtles, and water birds. They will all come from my belly alive, and by and by there will be people in this country to eat them.”

Coyote then arose and walked a short distance. Then he turned and said to Kuksu, ” I will make a dance-house and make a big dance and feast and will call you. I will let you know when everything is ready.” Kuksu said, ” All right, that is good.”

Coyote went northward to Yu-bu-tui (near Upper Lake) and there built a small tule house for himself. He then went all around the lake and talked with all the different birds about the coming dance, and secured the services of two young men from every species of bird to assist in building the dance-house. These all came at the appointed time, and there were so many of them that they were able to dig the pit and complete the house in a very short time. Meanwhile Coyote made many tule houses and had a large village prepared. After finishing the dance-house the birds all left, Coyote promising to notify them when all things were ready for the dance.

While the birds were at work, Coyote took from them without their knowledge two feathers each, and in each one of the tule houses he placed a pair of feathers, except in the best house, where he placed a single hawk (tata) feather. He then went to bed in his own house, and lay there talking to himself all night. He said that the feathers

1 The fact that there are at times waves of considerable height on Clear Lake is explained by some of the Indians as a necessary condition, since the water originally came from the ocean, where there are waves at all times.

Pomo Tule Boat Clear Lake Ca

should turn into people, 1 and that there should be people there be- fore daybreak on the following morning, a man and a woman in each house ; that Hawk (tata) should be the captain of all and should be the last one to leave the house ; that Blue-jay (tsai) should be a doctor and poison man (wizard) ; that Tsapu should be a poison man also ; that Gray-squirrel should be Obsidian-man (katca-tca) and that he should be a quick fighter and dodger, a high jumper and able to run up trees ; that Red-headed-woodpecker (katak) should be a slow man but able to see farther than any one else; that Crow (kaai) should be a slow man but very long-winded and able to fly higher than any one else ; that Hummingbird (tsudlyun) should be able to fly faster than any one else and should be a doctor with the power to carry away disease by pulling hair out of a patient’s body and carrying it out where the wind might blow it away ; but that before doctoring in this manner he should dance ; that Hummingbird should also have the power to fly up in the air and cause thunder and light- ning ; that Kingbird (kapin/ada/adau) should always be the first awake in the morning and should wake the rest of the village ; and that Wocwoc (mockingbird or thrasher) should watch over the people of the village and wake every one at intervals throughout the night so as to prevent some one from poisoning them ; it would be particu-arly his duty to keep a close watch on Blue-jay, who was a poison man.

Coyote had just finished designating the duties and powers of each individual when he heard Kingbird say, ” We we, it is daylight now, wake up, wake up.” He went out but saw no one astir. He went into the dance-house, but there was no one there. Soon how- ever he heard some one cough outside the house. He then went up on the roof of the dance-house to a point near the smoke hole, from where he commenced to speak to the people : “Now, my children, you young men go out and get wood for the dance-house. You young women make mush, pinole, and bread, and when you have finished preparing the food, bring it into the dance-house so that we may all eat. After we have all eaten I will tell you what to do next, my children.”

As the young men started to get wood, the old people told them that the first man to return would be considered the best man. Then Gray-squirrel (Obsidian-man, katca-tca) ran swiftly up the hill until he came to a large dry manzanita bush which he cut down and into short lengths with his feet very quickly. He bound the wood into a bundle with a withe of white oak and ran back to the village, arriving there long before any of the others. As he threw the

1 According to other versions people were created from sticks instead of feathers.

pomo sticks stick game

wood into the smoke hole it struck the floor with a loud noise and those within cried, ” He he, be careful there. Don’t make so much noise up there. You will break down the dance-house.” Finally, after all the young men had returned with wood, Coyote directed the fire keeper (laimoc) to kindle the fire and then to begin the fanning. This was done and the men fanned one another until all the wood was burned and all the men were very warm, after which they ran to the creek and bathed for a short time.

When all had returned to the dance-house, Coyote spoke again from the roof, and directed that all the food should be brought into the house, where every one might enjoy the feast. This was done, and every one feasted for a long time. Then Coyote rose from his place between the fire and the centrepole and again spoke to the people, finishing with these words, ” Eagle (cai) and Gray-squirrel (the Obsidian-man) will be your captains (chiefs, tca-kalik). They shall be of equal rank, and each will care for his own people.” Then speaking to the two captains, he said, ” You shall be captains. You shall talk to your people and shall instruct them in all that is just and right. Henceforth I shall be an old man and shall have nothing to do but eat.”

The two captains then consulted and decided to appoint Panther (damot) and Wolf (smewa) chief huntsmen, Makd and Kakau chief fishermen, and Wood-duck (wadawada) female captain (mata kalitc). Others were appoined fire tenders (laimoc), head singer (ke’uya), and drummer (tsllotca). Eagle then announced 1 the appointments of the two huntsmen and two fishermen, one each for each division of the village, and of Wood-duck as the female captain of the entire village, also of the dance-house officials for the entire village. In conclusion he said, ” Now you hunters and fishermen must tell us how we can all live together and get along well together. We have finished speaking now.”

The huntsmen and fishermen consulted, but finally said, ” We know very little. We can only hunt and fish for the people, and must follow the instructions of our captains.”

Then they asked Wood-duck what she would have them do. She replied, ” I do not think we are living now as we should. We should have one head captain (tca-yedul-bate) to govern us all, and Hawk (tata) is the proper one for that office. Coyote created us all, and I think we should make Tata head captain, as his grandfather (Coyote) was before him.”

As Coyote had willed it, Tata had not yet left his house ; so the fire tenders were sent to bring him to the dance-house. A large black bear skin, blanket was spread immediately in front of the centrepole in the dance-house, and when Tata had seated himself on it saying, ” Yes, this is good,” Coyote asked him to tell the peo- ple what should be done Tata replied that the best thing that could be done would be to hold a big dance to which all of the neigh- boring people should be invited ; meaning all the people who had assisted Coyote in the building of the dance-house.

1 In speaking to the people Eagle always spoke in a loud voice, repeating verbatim what Gray-squirrel said to him in a low tone.

pomo ceremonial necklace

A great dance was then celebrated for four days and nights, after which a feast was spread on the dancing ground (ke-male) in the dance-house, and Eagle told Tata to address the people. This he did and finally called the two captains, the two huntsmen, the two fishermen, and the two fire tenders to come and divide the food among the people so that all might eat and enjoy themselves. Those appointed divided the food, giving the best food to the head singer, next to the chorus singers, and so on until every one had had an abundance of food. This feast ended the celebration and all the visitors departed. The people whom Coyote had created out of the feathers continued to live at this village for a long time.

At this time the sun did not move across the heavens as it does now. It only rose a short distance above the eastern horizon and then sank again. Coyote finally determined to see why the sun behaved in this peculiar manner. He collected and placed in his hunting sack food, dancing paraphernalia, a sleep-producing tuft of feathers (sma-kaaitcil), and four mice. With these, and accompanied by singers and dancers 1 he started eastward, in which direction they traveled for four days. At the end of the second day all of the party dressed themselves in their dancing paraphernalia and finished the rest of the journey dancing and singing.

Near evening of the fourth day the party arrived at a big dance- house, the home of the Sun people, 2 around which they danced in a

1 Coyote took with him as his head singer Cmii-kadokado. Among his dancers were Sul (condor), Tcitci (a species of hawk), Dakat (a small species of hawk), Kok (loon), and Tciyd (a species of hawk). These were all very strong people and were taken not only because of their ability to dance, but also in order that there might be strong men who were able to carry the sun back to the village. 2 Informants differ somewhat in their opinions of the Sun people, but according to one informant they are : the Sun-prophet (da-matu), who has the power, by means of visions, of seeing and knowing everything that transpires upon the earth, and directs all the movements and conduct of the other Sun people ; the Sun-man (da-tcatc) who carries the sun, a large shining disc, in his hand or suspended from his neck by means of a grapevine withe ; two Sun-women (da-ma/a), the daugh- ters of Sun-man ; and four Sun-messengers (da-tcma), who always accompany Sun-man and do his bidding. As Sun-man soars in the heavens with the sun, he sees everything done by the people on the earth and, when some misdeed is committed, he sends one of the Sun-messengers to the earth to shoot the offender with

Sweatlodge Pomo Underground

counter-clockwise direction four times, then in a clockwise direction four times. They then entered the house and danced in the same manner around the fire, then around the center pole, and finally around the fire and pole together, at last halting and seating them- selves in front of the centrepole. Sun-man saw Coyote and his peo- ple entering the sun-house and sent one of his messengers to welcome them. As the visitors seated themselves the messenger said, ” It is good, friends, that you have come here.” Coyote replied, “My people wished to come and have a little dance with you to-night.” The messenger replied, ” Yes, that is good, we will dance.” By and by the rest of the Sun people came home, Sun-man, as was his custom, hanging the sun by the grapevine withe to one of the rafters of the dance-house. Wood was finally brought and all things were in readiness for the dance, the first of which Coyote proposed should be the fire dance (ho-ke), a dance in which all might join.

As the dance began Coyote liberated the four mice which he had secreted in his hunting sack and told them to run up the centre- pole and along the rafters to where the sun was tied, and gnaw the withe that bound it to the roof. Presently one of the mice fell from the roof into the fire, but sprang out and attempted to escape. He was caught by one of the Sun-messengers, who was about to throw him back into the fire when Coyote called to him, ” Here, here, do not throw that away. I eat those. Give it to me.” The messenger gave Coyote the mouse and Coyote pretended to eat it, crunching a piece of charcoal to give the sound of breaking bones, while the mouse ran down his arm into the hunting sack. From here he was soon able to again run up the center pole and resume his gnaw ing on the withe that held the sun. During this dance all four of the mice fell one at a time from the roof and were rescued by Coyote and returned to their work in like manner. The fire dance was finally finished after four intermissions, and the usual plunge and short swim followed. Then came a war dance (tcma-ke), which was followed by still another dance ; the three dances lasting until nearly midnight. By that time all of the Sun people were very tired and Coyote commenced to dance the fourth dance alone. He placed the sleep-producing tuft of feathers which he had brought in his hunting sack on the end of a stick, making a wand which he waved over the people as he danced, with the result that after a time all of the Sun people were sound asleep ; but Coyote’s people were not affected by the wand. By this time the mice had succeeded in an invisible arrow and carry away his spirit to the abode of the dead beyond the southern end of the world, where, if Dd-matu approves of the death, the spirit remains. Otherwise the messenger returns the spirit to its body and the victim recovers consciousness.

Coyote Dancing

gnawing in two the withe which held the sun and bringing it down to the floor.

Coyote’s people then caught hold of the edge of the sun and all danced out of the house in exactly the reverse order in which they had entered. They danced around the centrepole and fire together, first four times in a clockwise direction, then four times in a counter- clockwise direction, following this by the same cycle with the centre- pole as a centre, with the fire as a centre, and with the dance-house itself as a centre, after which they started westward toward their home. Coyote now willed that the earth should contract so that they might return home quickly, and they found that they were soon near their village.

Red-headed-woodpecker, the far-sighted man, first saw the party as it returned, and called every one in the village out to see the new light. The sun was laid on the ground in the village and its final disposition was discussed, with the result that Coyote told the peo- ple that it must be hung up in the middle of the sky. Hawk (tata) accordingly called forth two brothers of each species of bird, and instructed them to try to take the sun up into the heavens and hang it there according as Coyote had directed. Those who suc- cessively attempted the feat were Hummingbird (tsudiyun), Dakat (a small species of hawk), Eagle (cai), Loon (kok), Ce-tata (a large species of hawk), and many others. All except Crow brothers had tried and failed, and when they came forward to try every one laughed at them and remarked upon their slowness of flight and their physi- cal weakness ; but one of them grasped the sun by its edge while the other flew under it so that it rested on his back. Thus they flew higher and higher, interchanging their respective positions fre- quently in order to rest each other. As the Crows flew they cried, ” a , a , a ,” until to the great surprise of the watchers below they reached such a height that they could no longer be heard ; and then such a height that they were lost to view to all save Red-headed-woodpecker, who was able to see much farther than any one else. He announced from time to time the progress of the Crows : ” They are a long way up now. They are getting near the spot where the sun must hang. They are flying very slowly. They seem very tired. They have stopped now to take a rest. They are only a very short distance from the place now. Now they have reached it. There, they have hung it up. Now they are coming back down.” After a long time the Crows reached the earth again, having travelled downward like bullets. The people of the village rejoiced greatly that they had the sun and had it hung up in the proper place so that it could give them light. They brought out all kinds of beads, baskets, blankets, and food as presents to the Crows for the service they had rendered.

coyote face

Presently some one cried, “e ,” and Blue-jay told everyone to assemble in front of the dance-house. Here they found Coyote and Hawk standing on the roof ; they announced their decision that a dance should be held to celebrate the occasion. The first dance was the fire dance in which every one joined, dancing until all were very warm and then as usual taking a swim. When they returned to the dance-house Coyote noticed that Gray-squirrel was not among them and said, ” There is one man who is gone but none of you have noticed it.” They all asked, “Who?” “It is Gray-squirrel who is not here. He has gone away and left us because he does not like the way we do things ; but we need not worry or try to hunt for him, for he does not seem to like any one.” So all returned to the dance- house and resumed the celebration.

Not long after this Coyote became provoked at the actions of the people and said, ” You people do not try to do as I tell you to. You do not seem to care to do the proper thing and try to be somebody. You might as well be animals and go and do the way you like best.” So he proceeded to turn them all into animals and birds and to designate the habitat and characteristics of each. ” You shall always live out in the mountains. You shall be afraid and will be shot for meat. Your name shall be Deer (pee). “

You shall live in the woods and shall hunt for deer. Once in a while you shall kill a man. Your name shall be Wolf (smewa).

” You shall always live in the mountains and in the woods. You shall hunt for deer and shall sometimes kill men. Your name shall be Bear (bita).

” You shall live in the woods and in the mountains. You shall hunt for deer and shall sometimes kill people. Your name shall be Panther (damot).

” You shall live around Clear Lake. You shall live in the trees, make your nest there, and defecate upon them. You shall eat raw fish. Your name shall be Loon (kok).

” You shall swim around Clear Lake and eat bugs and grass. Your name shall be Coot (katsiya). ” You shall also swim around in Clear Lake and eat bugs and grass. Your name shall be Duck (kaiyan).

” You shall stand around in the lake and whenever there are big schools of fish coming out of the lake into the creeks you shall cry, ‘ its dlkubuhu.’ Your name shall be Dikubuhu.

“You shall fly around in the air and catch bugs and eat them. You shall hunt around in places where there are many bugs and grasshoppers and shall eat them raw. Your name shall be Crow (kaa’i).

blue jay

” You shall fly around in the trees, gather acorns, make holes in the trees, put the acorns in there for winter time, and then eat them. Your name shall be Red-headed-woodpecker (katak).

” You shall live among the trees. You shall peck holes in them and shall eat the sap. Your name shall be Sapsucker (kalestat).

“You shall fly around, in the open country where there is plenty of room and fresh air and shall fly down and catch bugs and grass- hoppers and eat them raw. Your name shall be Kingbird (kapinfe- da/adau).

” You shall fly up very high in the air and then fly very swiftly down to the ground and catch mice or birds, or any kind of food. Your name shall be Dakat (a species of hawk).

” You shall live out in the woods in a hollow tree. You cannot see in the daytime. During the night is the only time you will be able to see. Then you shall catch mice and eat them. Your name shall be Night-hawk (?) (natoto).

” You shall live out in a hollow tree during the day for you can- not see except at night. Then you shall catch mice and eat them and you shall sing at night also. Your name shall be Owl (makugu).

” You shall live out in the woods during the day for you cannot see during the daytime. You can only see at night. You shall hunt and sing at night. Your name shall be Cmaikadokado.”

When Coyote finally finished designating the attributes of each different animal and bird he said, ” I shall go by the name of Coyote (Iwf). Tata here shall be called Tata. He shall be a flying bird and shall live where there are no other birds around. All you birds and animals shall raise children, and their children shall raise children, and all shall be called by the names I have given you. I shall be Coyote and I shall be able to smell as far as any of you can see. I shall be able to smell very far and tell who or what is there. I shall sneak around and steal things. Sometimes I shall even run after human beings and kill and eat them.”

” Now you all stand up and get ready ; when I cry four times we must all run off to our respective places.” All rose and Coyote cried, ” e 1 ye ! e 1 ye ! e T ye ! e 1 ye ! yu he ! we we ! All were immediately transformed into the birds and animals Coyote had indicated and went to the various places he had designated. Coyote went away last.


SUMMARY. (1) The licentiousness of Coyote prompts trickery. Coyote saves two of his miraculously-born children and cares for them unaided. (2) The people of the village abuse the children in his absence. Coyote revenges himself and his children by setting fire to the world. The three escape to the sky by means of Spider, the gate- keeper of the sky, and a feather rope. They visit Madumda. He is displeased with the conduct of Coyote and sends him back to the earth with instructions as to his future actions. (3) Upon returning to the earth Coyote finds the tops of the mountains burned off, the streams dried up, and all kinds of food roasted by the great world-fire. He eats a prodigious quantity of the roasted meat, becomes thirsty, and searches for water which he finally finds in the ocean. He drinks four times, becomes very sick, and succeeds in reaching Kabai-dano, where he is doctored by Kuksu with the result that the water he drank forms Clear Lake, and the roasted meat eaten turns into the water fauna of the region. (4) At the northern end of Clear Lake Coyote causes the erection by the Bird people of a large dance-house. He, meanwhile, erects many dwelling-houses and secures two feathers from each of the birds. These he places in the houses and thus creates human beings. Officials are appointed, and a dance and feast are celebrated. (5) The sun did not formerly rise. Coyote and party journey eastward to the home of the Sun people and dance with them. Coy- ote sends up four mice from his hunting sack to gnaw off the withe with which the sun is hung to the roof of the dance-house while he dances and induces sleep among the Sun people by means of a magic wand. The sun is finally secured and all escape and return to the village at Clear Lake. The Bird people are called together, and all try to carry the sun up and hang it in the middle of the sky, which feat is finally accomplished by the wisdom of the two Crow brothers. Thus the world has proper light. (6) Coyote soon becomes provoked at the action of his people and transforms them into animals and birds, assigning the attributes and habitat of each. The literature dealing with the mythology of the Indians of Cali- fornia covers but a comparatively small part of the State, the princi- pal published works bearing on the subject being Dr. Goddard’s ” Hupa Texts,” Dr. Dixon’s ” Maidu Myths,” and Curtin’s ” Creation Myths of Primitive America,” dealing respectively with the Hupa, the Maidu, and the Wintun. In addition to these published myths, the writer has had placed at his disposal by Dr. A. L. Kroeber the vol. xix. — no. 72. 4

manuscript of the creation myth of the Yuki, the nearest northern neighbors of the Pomo. With this material as a basis it is possible to compare the Pomo myth here given with the myths of some of these neighboring peoples. Among none of the peoples here considered is there any concep- tion of an abstract primal genesis. All start with some concrete material. With the Yuki and Maidu all was water in the begin- ning, then came the creator who created the earth and all things on the earth ; but even such an approximation to an abstract idea of creation is apparently lacking among the Hupa, and Wintun, with whom there was in the beginning an earth of which the section in- habited by the particular people under consideration was in each case very similar to, if not identical with, that now existing. Also among the Pomo the majority of informants thus far questioned main- tain that there was in the beginning a world very similar to the one now existing, but a few have been found who give very fragmentary accounts of a creation of the world by Coyote ; in each case he having given certain materials from which to start. The burning of the world, which is given so much prominence in Pomo mythology, is found among the Wintun, and is there also actuated by the spirit of revenge. The re-covering of the rocks of the earth with soil after the great world-fire as told in Olelbis has no place in the Pomo account, the only destruction to the soil there being the burning off of the tops of the mountains ; but there is in the Wintun account of supplying the world with water after the world-fire by throwing a grapevine root and a tule root into the moun- tains, and then making streams by drawing furrows of different sizes on the earth with the sky-pole, something of an analogy to the Pomo account of the creation of Clear Lake and the watering of the neigh- boring region. Considerable variation is shown in the account of the creation of human beings. According to the Pomo they were created from feathers, or according to other versions from sticks ; 1 according to the Yuki they were created from sticks, and according to the Maidu from earth modelled into human form, or from sticks, 2 or little wooden figures. 8 With the Wintun there seems to be no definite theory of creation after the world-fire. The present movements of the sun seem to require explanation, 1 Stephen Powers, in his Tribes of California, p. 147, records a Pomo belief in a creation of human beings from earth, and on page 156 he states that the Indians of Potter Valley were created, according to their belief, from the red earth of a certain mound in that valley. 2 Powers, op. cit. p. 292. 3 Dr. R. B. Dixon, ” The Northern Maidu,” Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, xvii, 336. 1905-

and here again there are diverse opinions as to the cause. Accord- ing to the Porno the sun was stolen from its keepers in the east by Coyote aided particularly by four mice, after which it was hung in the middle of the sky by the two Crow brothers. In the version of the myth here given there was no pursuit of Coyote and his party by the Sun people, but in other versions they were hotly pursued and were only able to escape by the aid of strategy. According to the Yuki, Coyote went alone, stole the sun, and was pursued by the Sun people, but finally succeeded in securing the sun and causing it to travel according to his will. According to the Maidu the sun and moon were driven from their hiding-place in the east by Angle- worm and Gopher, but when once driven out they agreed with each other as to which should travel by night and which by day. The Wintun do not account for them. The transmutation of human beings into animals has been found among the Pomo, Yuki, Maidu, and Wintun. Among the first three Coyote appears as the ruling power, designating arbitrarily, according to the Pomo and Yuki, the attributes and habitats of the animals ; and deciding by means of a race, according to the Maidu, their habitats only. According to the Wintun, Olelbis, after recovering the earth, sent down from heaven all the animals and birds which he did not care to keep there with him, and designated the attributes and habitats of each. Of such as he desired to keep with him in heaven, as : the eagle, hummingbird, and red-headed-wood- pecker, he threw a feather to the earth and caused that to become the progenitor of the present race of that particular species. Thus it will be seen that the mythology of the Pomo Indians as shown by the single myth here recounted, though having many points similar to and some episodes identical with the mythologies of neighboring peoples, has also many points of difference, some of which are differences of detail, due largely to local environment, while others are fundamental.


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