Hawaiian Chiefs Late 1700's
I was watching a show about Hawaii and they were showing the outfits of the Hawaiian chiefs the helmet is called Mahi’ole, and it struck me how much it looked a lot like the Tibetan monks garments!
Any anthropologists out there know if there’s a connection?
200 Year Old Hawaiian Mahiole Bishop Museum
Hawaiian Royalty wore these featered cloaks and helmets. Hawaiian Chief’s Feather Cloak (‘ahu ‘ula) and Helmet Bishop Museum Oahu, Hawaii.
The chief in the background is Kaiana
Hawaiian feather helmets, known as mahiole in the Hawaiian language, were worn with feather cloaks (ʻahu ʻula). These were symbols of the highest rank reserved for the men of the aliʻi, the chiefly class of Hawaii. There are examples of this traditional headgear in museums around the world. At least sixteen of these helmets were collected during the voyages of Captain Cook. These helmets are made from a woven frame structure decorated with bird feathers and are examples of fine featherwork techniques. One of these helmets was included in a painting of Cook’s death by Johann Zoffany.
The design for mahiole is a basketry frame cap with a central crest running from the centre of the forehead to the nape of the neck. However the variation in the design is considerable with the colour and arrangement of the feather patterns differing and the crest varying in height and thickness. A number of museums have numerous examples in different designs and stages of preservation. A related Hawaiian term Oki Mahiole means a haircut where a strip of hair is left on the head. The image of the Hawaiian god Kū-ka-ili-moku is sometimes presented with a similar shaped head.
The Scarlet Hawaiian Honeycreeper or ʻIʻiwi
The helmets are constructed on a basket type construction which gives a light and strong frame. The frame is decorated usually with feathers obtained from local birds although there have been variations which have used human hair instead. The plant used to make the baskets is Freycinetia arborea, a plant often used to make basketware. In addition to Freycinetia arborea the makers also used fibre from the Touchardia latifolia plant which is a type of nettle. Touchardia latifolia was used to create string or thread to tie the feathers to the basketry.
The colouring was achieved using different types of feathers. The black and yellow came from a bird called the Moho or ʻOʻo in Hawaiian. There were four varieties of this bird. The last type became extinct in 1987 with the probable cause being disease. Black feathers were also sourced from the bird called the Mamo which is also now extinct. The distinctive red feathers came from Vestiaria coccinea – the Scarlet Hawaiian Honeycreeper or ʻIʻiwi and the species Himatione sanguinea also known as the ʻapapane. Both species are still moderately common birds in Hawaii. Although birds were exploited for their feathers the effect on the population is thought to be minimal.. The birds were not killed but were caught by specialist bird catchers, a few feathers harvested and then the birds were released.
Tens of thousands of feathers were required for each mahiole. A small bundle of feathers was gathered and tied before being tied into the framework. Bundles were tied in in close proximity to form a uniform covering of the surface of the mahiole.
Captain James Cook’s Mahiole
When Captain James Cook visited Hawaii on 26 January 1778 he was received by a high chief called Kalaniʻōpuʻu. At the end of the meeting Kalaniʻōpuʻu placed the feathered helmet and cloak he had been wearing on Cook. Kalaniʻōpuʻu also laid several other cloaks at Cook’s feet as well as four large pigs and other offerings of food. Much of the material from Cook’s voyages including the helmet and cloak ended up in the collection of Sir Ashton Lever. He exhibited them in his museum, initially called the Holophusikon and later the Leverian Museum. It was while at this museum that Cook’s mahiole and cloak were borrowed by Johann Zoffany in the 1790s and included in his painting of the Death of Cook.
Lever went bankrupt and his collection was disposed of by public lottery. The collection was obtained by James Parkinson who continued to exhibit it. He eventually sold the collection in 1806 in 8,000 separate sales. (The British Museum failed to bid on these items as Sir Joseph Banks had advised them that there was nothing of value.). The mahiole and cloak were purchased by the collector William Bullock who exhibited them in his own museum until 1819 when he also sold his collection. The mahiole and cloak were purchased by Charles Winn and they remained in his family until 1912, when Charles Winn’s grandson, the Second Baron St Oswald, gave them to the Dominion of New Zealand. They are now in the collection of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa.